Tsinghua U. Celebrates 100 Years, Pokes Net Nanny in the Eye

It’s been a busy week for ChinaGeeks and ChinaTrolls alike, what with the revolution that wasn’t and its raft of associated questions (inquiring minds want to know: Is Mary Kaye Huntsman, wife of U.S. ambassador John Huntsman and notorious McFlurry addict, the foxiest spouse in the 2012 republican presidential field? We say yes yes and yes!). Safely ensconced in ChinaGeek HQ (read: C. Custer’s private room at Latte) the day of the hullaboxun, we picked up on an interesting tidbit that has, up to this point, flown largely under everyone’s radar. As part of ChinaGeeks’ ongoing commitment to public service and the promotion of Western information imperialism, we thought we would share it with you.

The day it all didn’t go down, we tracked down a good friend at Tsinghua university to ask how the whole thing was playing out on the campus of China’s most wired university. Knowing now how the events of the day unfolded, it will probably come as no surprise to the reader that even to this fully bilingual, painfully tech-savvy friend of ours the news that the Big Mac revolution was underway came as a somewhat of a shock.

(Random tangent: Seriously, whose idea was it to meet at McDonald’s? Is this a revolution or a fifth grade field trip? Somewhere–probably the girls’ locker room at Beijing No. 4 High School–the ghost of Chairman Mao is facepalming)

With that bit of non-news confirmed, our conversation drifted into other topics. Several minutes and several changes of subject later, Tsinghua Friend said:

“I heard Tsinghua developed a new browser that can access facebook and twitter”

Huh? What was that?

HM: so you mean it’s got a built-in proxy?

THF: not sure, it’s built on ipv6

This was news to us. Also, what’s “ipv6”? Sounds shiny.

HM: doesn’t sound like something that would be politically possible

THF: i was surprised too
but tsinghua wants to launch it for the 100th anniversary i think

Now that is indeed interesting news. Our curiosity piqued, we followed the link Tsinghua Friend sent us. Here’s a screenshot for the lazy and the Chinese-illiterate out there:

At first glance, it all seems to fit with Tsinghua Friend’s description. We’ve got the Centenary Celebration logo, the browser name (a combination of Tsinghua’s official school color–purple–and the browser’s Firefox foundation), and an option to download the sucker. Being the curious critters we are, we clicked the download link.

17 hours left . . .

Yikes, looks like that’s not an option. So where else can we find this thing? Sina.com to the rescue!

(Interesting side note: Purplefox is now at #7 on sina’s list of most downloaded browsers this week. Not exactly setting the world on fire, but still one spot ahead of the China version of Firefox itself, and definitely enough to confirm that we’re not the only ones taking notice.)

Firing up the browser, we’re greeted with what looks like a slightly stripped-down Firefox interface, done up in a tasteful shade of light purple.

Default page is the download page of the browser itself, no shock there.

More interesting are the three links in the bookmarks bar: Youtube, Blogger, and Facebook. Blogger, we could care less about (Blogs are dead, you see . . .), but those other two rank pretty high on our list of frequently visited sites.

So does it work?

Short answer is, “results may vary”.

The good news is that you don’t need to be a Tsinghua student to download and use the browser, nor do you need to be on campus at the university. Anyone can download and use the browser anywhere they want.

In our tests both at home and in various locations around Sanlitun, we found that sometimes Youtube or Facebook were accessible (always one or the other. We never got both to work at the same time.), sometimes timed out. When we were able to access Facebook, we weren’t always able to log in successfully. Speeds were significantly slower than with a VPN. But the bottom line is, the thing works. Check the screenshot:

It appears that the browser is, for the most part, as advertised, which immediately raises all kinds of questions. Let’s tick through some of the most obvious ones, shall we?

Q: How does this thing work?

Tsinghua Friend is not a computer science major, and we’re more of a China geek than an actual geek, so unfortunately (mercifully?), we can’t go into great detail on all the technical wizardry going on in the back end. Our first instinct was to say “fairy magic”, actually.

A little googling brought us up to speed, though. The key lies in in the browser being built to access, by default, the ipv6 version of a web page.

In a very brief nutshell (and with apologies in advance to all the techies out there to whom this explanation is painfully simplistic. Feel free to chime in in the comments on all the places we’ve gotten this wrong), ipv6 is a system by which web sites are assigned the actual physical address that a browser directs itself to when you request, for example, that it show you “facebook.com”. It’s the successor to a previous standard known as ipv4, upon which almost all of the internet as we know it was built.

The switchover is necessary because, as you might have heard, someday very soon ipv4 will run out of addresses. Ivp6, on the other hand, was built with something on the order of a few hundred billion addresses per person on planet Earth, so it’s probably fair to say that once the transition to ipv6 is complete, space will no longer be an issue.

The numerical addresses behind the web addresses we type into our browsers are, almost without exception, ipv4. However, some of the more tech-forward outfits out there have already started the migration to ipv6. As you might imagine, prominent among these are Google and Facebook. As far as we were able to find in limited, desultory googling, Twitter does not yet have an ipv6 address (once again, if we’re wrong on this, feel free to correct us).

Purplefox comes with a built-in list of ipv6 addresses for major sites that have already made the switch. So when you type in one of those sites, it automatically directs your page request to the ipv6 version of the site.

(Worth noting is that you can actually do this trick in most standard browsers, but since they don’t do the routing automatically, you have to enter the actual numerical ipv6 address into your address bar with brackets around it. To access Facebook, for example, you enter “[2620:0:1cfe:face:b00c::3]”. When we tried this using Chrome, we were able to open Facebook’s front page, but we weren’t able to log in. Your mileage may vary.)

For whatever reason, the Great Firewall is not currently set up to block on a consistent basis the ipv6 versions of sites whose ipv4 versions are on the banlist.

Q: Why not?

A: Didn’t you see where we wrote “for whatever reason?”. Do we look like Li Changchun to you? On second thought, don’t answer that (he looks much better in red than we do) . . .

If we had to speculate (and since saying something on the internet automatically makes it true, that’s just what we’re going to do), we would guess that the answer is “because they haven’t gotten around to it yet.”

Ipv6 is coming, make no mistake about that. At some point, if they want to maintain the integrity of their reality distortion field, the Infocops here are going to have to get around to addressing ipv6. But it may still be awhile before that day arrives.

With everything else that’s on their plates, it’s probably no surprise that ipv6 isn’t very high on the priority list. So until they get the hole patched, this whole Purplefox thing will make a pretty neat little party trick (assuming you go to the same kind of parties we do. Pi recitation throwdown, anyone?).


A: Hold your horses there, Sparky! Remember, this only works for websites that have a ipv6 version. Right now, that’s not a huge list. The one site that would make this whole thing really interesting–Twitter–is not on the list, at least as far as we’ve been able to find. And anyway, the only person in China who uses Twitter is Ai Weiwei (or maybe it just seems like it . . .).

Don’t believe us, ask your Chinese girlfriend. No really, go ask her. We’ll wait . . .

See? We told you.

The clincher on the whole thing is that there’s no mobile version of the browser, so all those millions of folks out in the hinterlands just getting on the mobile web, the folks who wouldn’t know a VPN if it bit them on the pigu, won’t be able to bask in Purplefox’s jasmine-scented glory.

Besides, if Tsinghua is at the cutting edge of ipv6 in China, then you’d better believe they’re at the cutting edge of how to block ipv6, whether they like it or not.

Q: Wait, what do you mean, “whether they like it or not?”

A: Well, it’s not exactly a secret that a lot of the bright young things out at Tsinghua aren’t exactly fans of the GFW. Actually, it might be more accurate to say “hold it in open contempt”.

QHF: a lot of tsinghua geeks make fun of the GFW
i saw an ad recruiting interns for the internet center
they used a tinyurl link
which is blocked
the ad says “链接在墙外,非诚勿扰“

HM: haha
so it’s basically like “if you’re not smart enough to figure out how to see this, don’t even bother applying”?

QHF: exactly
they put up 2 huge ad boards in our dorm area
which made me laugh

Which brings us to the most interesting question. Why wou . . .


A: Right, that’s what we were going to say. You’re quite the eager beaver, aren’t you?

Short answer is: your guess is as good as ours.

A quick spin through the internets (Google, Baidu, and Weibo) for information on how this browser got the green light or interviews with the people involved in building it came up empty. Then again, we’re lazy, and our head is starting to hurt. Commenters who can dig up more solid information, 欢迎你们!

Since the internet’s primary purpose is uniformed speculation, you better believe that we and  Tsinghua Friend have our own theories. There’s the “geeks hate the firewall theory”, there’s the “100th anniversary celebration theory”, there’s the “look, China can build an ipv6 browser too!” theory, and there’s the “2000 words into this post I’m too tired to make up another theory” theory.

It’s actually not too far-fetched that China’s premier technical university would try to build a browser around ipv6. Tsinghua has aggressively rolled out ipv6 connectivity out across its own campus, and ipv6 is at the heart of the government’s efforts to vault China ahead in the race for next-generation internet predominance.

But considering that the three links preinstalled in the browser’s bookmarks bar are three sites that, technically speaking, are illegal to view inside China, it’s hard to swallow the idea that the people who put this together didn’t have other things in mind besides the technological arms race.

Citing national prestige as the ostensible rationale for developing a browser that undermines what the Chinese government sees as a crucial weapon in the fight to protect that prestige.

Now that’s cheeky.

Q: So what’s it all mean?

A: You know what, we’re tired of all your questions (actually, after all this typing, we’re just tired generally). That’s what the comments section is for! You’ve got the basics, go figure it out for yourself!

. . .

. . .

Go on, get out of here! Get off my lawn!

. . .

No, seriously. Get off my lawn.

Update: And we didn’t even start on the question of whether there’s some kind of black magic GFW tracking software built into the back end of Purplefox. Download at your own risk!

0 thoughts on “Tsinghua U. Celebrates 100 Years, Pokes Net Nanny in the Eye”

  1. ipv6? I recall 20 years ago when I used gopher to access the WWW, mostly universities had their websites up in the internet. I suppose that websites available in ipv6 are mostly universities like Tsinghua.


  2. Well, if Donald Trumps joins the GOP run for 2012 I am pretty sure his current wife (and some of this ex) would be the the hottest. On the other hand, if you include the Democrats Dennis Kucinich’s wife is up there as well.

    On the whole IpV6 concept, it has been talked about for over a decade now. I remember writing a paper on this during my masters. The fact is that most of us have an IPv4 as well as IPv6 address on our computers if you cared to look. Companies are slow to move towards IPv6 for numerous reasons, one being that the problem is not all that urgent. The concept of subnet allows organizations to create their own IP ranges internally. So a small company with only one internet connection can easily have dozens of people sharing that single IP address.


  3. An otherwise great article ruined by your hate for Communism Custer. Was the Mao dig really necessary?

    I don’t see Chinese netters mention our founding father’s wooden teeth and syphilis, or spreading the rumor Washington got VD from banging his male slaves, which were considerd animals in his time.

    As to scaling the GFW, lets just say some kid at a net bar showed me how to use ProxyHunter. VPN is also legal in China, as US ISPs operating in China demonstrate. Only people with stuff to hide use Falun Gong’s Ultra Surf (paid for by my tax dollar.)


  4. Anyone in China who wants to access blocked websites can do so – it is not a big deal. Falun Gong has been busy distributing circumventing tools to Chinese netizens for the past 20 years


  5. “Falun Gong has been busy distributing circumventing tools to Chinese netizens for the past 20 years”

    You know, nevermind that FLG was established in 1992 which means it has a history of slightly less than 20 years. The Great Firewall itself has only been operational since 2003 so there was no need to “scale the GFW” before that. You can do the math yourself but since this is offtopic so whatever.


  6. @ChasL: I’m not Custer (blessings and peace be upon him), but I thank you for the compliment nonetheless. You’re right, the “dig” was not strictly necessary, but it did make me giggle. Then again, so does this, so take that for what it’s worth.


  7. Lolz, you are cortect, the VA based Falun Gong outfit, Dynamic Internet Technology Inc., started receiving NED funding around 2001 and Freegate, DynaWeb, were released about 2002, targeting China. Here is the Google term: “Dynamic Internet Technology NED”.

    What’s interesting is after 2008 Olympics, US funding stopped; 2009 Freegate became paid service for non Chinese.


  8. Josh: “In before Charles Liu declares this post and Qinghua’s bypassing of the GFW an attack on Chinese sovereignty.”

    …followed by…

    ChasL: “An otherwise great article ruined by your hate for Communism Custer. Was the Mao dig really necessary?”


    the IPv4 issue (outside the GFW, anyway) can be compared to what happens when you run out of phone numbers, and you have to add an area code, or get people to dial an additional set of numbers, to be able to hand out more and more new phone numbers.

    IPv6 just makes it so more new IP addresses can be handed out. last i checked, this summer or so was when the max number of IPv4 addresses was meant to be reached, hence the recent scrambling to raise IPv6 awareness.

    though, who’s to say there won’t ever come a time when we run out of IPv6 addresses?: http://xkcd.com/865/


  9. Agreed that it’s basically a hacked copy of Firefox, and the Facebook button connects to so that’s a confirmation of what you Tsinghua friend said. Proxy settings (选项→高级→网络→设置/Options→Advanced→Network→Settings) are set to “Use system proxy”; my system setting is to use no proxy. Both Youtube and Facebook are accessible for me at the same time, but I didn’t do anything beyond access the front page because yeah, I don’t trust whatever’s in the back-end of this one.


  10. I love that even in a post that wasn’t written by me, Charles Liu wastes no time in accusing me of something inaccurate and then immediately mentions the NED. Although I’ll grant, Chas, you got baited.

    Still, does this really read like it was written by me? I’m surprised there isn’t some troll here saying it was written by Kai Pan actually, although let me head that idiot off at the pass by telling you it’s not Kai Pan either.


  11. Apologies to all concerned for the little dustup. Twas my maiden post, you see, wasn’t aware that CGeeks rules of the road included “no making fun of known pedophiles”, lest I enrage the pro-pedophilia lobby. In future posts I will do my best to studiously ignore all reported pedophilic tendencies of historical figures–be they Chinese, foreign, or Chairman Mao–so as to avoid hurting the feelings of the Chinese nation, or anyone else who forgot to put on their happy pants this morning.



  12. God, you guys are such liars. It was written by Kai Pan. He’s obviously created the name Horse Mechanic to defeat ChasL once and for all. But I can see through his subterfuge.


  13. I stand corrected on the author, but I stand by my observation that this article is ruined by the author’s hate for China.


  14. d00d, wtf? It was so 和谐 up in this hizzouse just a second ago! I mean did you notice right after I said I would stop bringing up the fact that Chairman Mao went through underage girls like he was Thomas Jefferson or something how it got all quiet? You could hear Custer’s fighting crickets chirping! I even apologized and said I wouldn’t ever make fun of the fact that Chairman Mao was a champion teenybopper-bopper anymore! What more do I have to do?

    Ok, how about this: I am REALLY REALLY SORRY for implying that 毛爷爷 did more deflowering than an Afghan poppy farmer, and I will never do it again.

    Can you take me back? I promise I can change, baby!


  15. No… Keep the gloves on.

    If a Chinese person makes fun of an American leader publicly, that would sure make American people feel proud and happy, even thou it only gives that Chinese person a giggle.

    Chinese people all over the world, I bet, would feel the same when foreigners making fun of their leaders. Remember Rush Limbaugh mocking President Hu? I love it.


  16. Dear NED, as a patriotic American (ain’t never been citizen of the PRC a day in my life), I wouldn’t be making such a fuss online if you weren’t wasting my tax dollar on stuff that are not only rightly illegal in US, but also does nothing to advance democracy in China, yet garner nationalistic backlash from Chinese citizen and more support for the CCP.

    Because of you, the Chinese government has nothing to worry about, while anyone who cares about democracy in China does.


  17. “hey charles liu- im in ur country, funding ur democracy activists

    u mad?”

    I lol’d. You, sir, are a gentleman and a scholar.

    Custer, stop being so polite all the time and embrace the fact that guys like ChasL are superiorly easy to troll. Can’t be surprised when you get shot if you’re gonna paint a target on your back.


  18. Charles Liu,

    Maybe I am wasting my time writing this but I really doesn’t see the hate in HM’s post.

    I mean, as a rule of thumb, any people willing to go deep into analyzing Chinese news, language and culture is likely to hold respect – if not affection – for the country. Otherwhise he is just a masochist who loves to waste his time learning a language he doesn’t like and reading about something he doesn’t care about. What ? This sounds preposterous ? Indeed, it is.

    I give it to you, HM does certainly not hold the CCP in great esteem but if you equate China to the Heavenly Kingdom, you are basically making the same mistake as the millions of dumbs folks who watch Fox News (and a wide array of other Western media) everyday.


  19. “maybe i am wasting my time writing this”

    No, i don’t think you are. Unfortunately, folks like ChasL make it necessary to point out the obvious.

    Also, I feel I owe the commentators here a genuine apology. I had my fun stirring the pot those past few comments, but as a result I’ve done relatively little to push the discussion towards what I feel are the most interesting un-answered questions surrounding this browser, namely:

    1) who are the people at Tsinghua who developed this thing?
    2) how did it get approval?

    and most importantly

    3) what are the “whys” for each of those previous two questions? i.e. why did the people who develop Zihu develop it, and why did the people who green-lit Zihu’s development give the green light?

    I confess, I haven’t done any further research on these questions since the post, because I just haven’t had time. My hope, expressed a couple times during the post, was that we might get a couple commentators who were better infosleuths than me (esp. in Chinese), and might be able to dig up something that I had missed in my rather cursory searches.

    So far, that hasn’t happened. And I, of course, have done more than my share of work in distracting all concerned from the issue at hand. So for that, genuine apologies on my part to y’all. As C. Bergerac pointed out in the previous post, we’re all here on CGeeks because we want to know more about this immense, cloudy Chinese sea in which we all swim each day (pollution pun very much intended . . .). Hopefully I’ll be able to a better job of keeping that in mind down the line.

    Edit – @ChasL: Lest you once again overlook the obvious and misunderstand me, I am not apologizing to you. Grow a sense of humor, jerk.


  20. PS – And yes I understand the irony of apologizing for stirring the pot while simultaneously insulting you. Call it cognitive dissonance. Call it immaturity. Call it whatever. Anyway, you deserve it. Pointing out that governments (or even individuals) are hypocritical is like pointing out that the sky is blue; anyone with a working pair of eyes knows it, and you impress no one but yourself by doing so.


  21. “If a Chinese person makes fun of an American leader publicly, that would sure make American people feel proud and happy”

    They do? Most of the conservatives in the US definitely don’t like it when Europeans don’t support say, Iraq war, and went as far as to change the name of “french fries” to “freedom fries to voice their displeasure. Granted, American liberals would be happy and proud if rest of the world ONLY make fun of war mongers on the right like Bush and Rumsfield, but if people attack Obama the liberals will not take it nicely either.

    If you want to troll the pro-West folks all you need to do is to criticize their media as biased against China or give some facts about how the Chinese government is improving the lives of the average Chinese. Most of the time they will become totally defensive and/or go full retard on you.

    In general people like it when others reinforce their existing political ideologies, but I have not met many people who enjoy their political beliefs to be challenged regardless of their nationality.


  22. I mean, as a rule of thumb, any people willing to go deep into analyzing Chinese news, language and culture is likely to hold respect – if not affection – for the country.

    Hmm… No, not really.

    And it also hinges on what you mean by “country.” Is the country the one as in “China A Threat to Asia” or as in “China has thousands of years of history”?

    For the Chinese people, it’s first and foremost the latter. Not sure if the word China conjures up the same image in the West, though.

    And that’s one of the fundamental causes why many Chinese people resent western criticism of “China.” Cuz, you know, the defitions are different.


  23. hey charles liu- im in ur country, funding ur democracy activists

    u mad?

    Any move to help the Chinese economy (by putting money into circulation) is welcome.


  24. I’ll let the fact speak for itself. This article is rated barely a 5, while it is very unusual for a blogpost on CG to get less than an 8.

    (Sorry keisaat, I don’t want my tax dollar help the Chinese economy. The fact demand for food charity is on the rise in America means my tax can go towards better things than to finance these misguided foreign policy ventures.)


  25. “1) who are the people at Tsinghua who developed this thing?
    2) how did it get approval?
    and most importantly
    3) what are the “why”

    Maybe this represents some political significance but I pretty much doubt it. You are talking about an elite university with many geeks. While the discovery is pretty neat I don’t think it’s all that hard to write a software which exploits the hole in GFW. As for why, when it comes to geeks, they often like to get around restrictions just to prove that they can. It’s like asking why do people hack their PS3s and install linux on them, or figuring out the significance of people hacking their iphones. IMO most people don’t do these things in to make a political stance, sometimes the reasons are a lot more plain and simple.


  26. @C.Custer: “Still, does this really read like it was written by me? …”

    I know… Anybody thought this piece was written by you, was unforgivably mistaken.

    Even though I don’t always agree with you, you write a lot better than this. I mean “A LOT”. Seriously.


  27. @Horse Mechanic,

    1) who are the people at Tsinghua who developed this thing?
    2) how did it get approval?

    and most importantly

    3) what are the “whys” for each of those previous two questions? i.e. why did the people who develop Zihu develop it, and why did the people who green-lit Zihu’s development give the green light?

    You’re asking nonsensical questions because non of us work in Tsinghua so you’re asking a question that we could not answer.

    I fail to see what is the importance of this (poking net nanny in the eye) because there’s less than 1% of the people in the world using ipv6 and probably much less using this in China. Since the Chinese government doesn’t see that ipv6 as a security (yet), and I fail to see the significance of this story.


  28. Hello from London,

    We just wanted to stop by and let you know that we love what you’re doing with ChinaGeeks. We also wanted to offer a way for us to work together.

    Who we are? We’re two London based editors with deceptively French sounding names. We travel, read and engage in creative projects across the board and know how difficult it can be to find inspiring content written by local people. So we’re doing something about it by starting Chorus+Echo – http://www.chorusandecho.com – C+E is way to give our readers informed access to ideas and cities across the World, while at the same time giving our family of contributors a far larger audience and an opportunity for them to make a little bit (but hopefully a lot!) more money from their content.

    We have spent months pouring over thousands upon thousands of blogs and sites and have decided to launch in 20 cities with a handful of blogs in each. We would love to work with you here in London, in China and beyond. We would use the content you post up on your blog, so there’s no extra work for you at all. At the same time you would be credited for any content, which means extra traffic for chinageeks.org

    With the launch of C+E imminent, we’ve put together the first in our series of launch events in TOKYO [woo hoo!] between March 15th-22nd. We’ll be meeting up with several of our contributors from Tokyo, meeting boutique and shop owners, interviewing several creative and business leaders from lecturers and architects to designers and musicians, being interviewed by local press and also holding a C+E event with London Calling at ELEVEN where I will be headlining.

    WIf you have any questions don’t hesitate to get in touch with either of us. We can send you more info about the project.

    Hope you’re interested in getting involved!

    Jean-Robert and Luc Le Corre


  29. @ Keissat

    I get your point but I think you have misread me (or I did not make myself plain clear). When I said “do not equate China with the Heavenly Kingdom”, I meant that China – at least in the minds of most people who spend some time studying it – is NOT its government.

    My point was that you must make a difference between the State and the country as a whole. The former is the focus of the “China as a Threat to Asia” narrative and subject to many criticism for its various authoritarian practices. The latter is less known in the West and embraces everything else : popular culture, civil society, History, worth-noting civil figures in the PRC and so on.

    To put it more plainly : when you hear someone talking about the “United States”, what does it bring up in your mind ? The Obama administration or the cultural, social and political entity made by the american people as a whole ?

    I do think that the more time you spent in China learning about Chinese, the more likely you are to adopt the second approach. Horse Mechanich obviously belongs to this group, thus I don’t see how ChasL could say speak of the “author’s hate for China”.


  30. OMG Senor/Senora/Senorita Bergerac:

    I am so happy that someone is talking calmly like you for once here. I’m not being sarcastic.


  31. Since I’m in America at the moment, when the word “America/US” comes up, I do consider the American people first. And everywhere I go, I see nice people. If I do criticize American policy, I take care to always use “US government” or specific groups.

    The problems with this expat blog or any other is that if you stay long enough you’ll see so many expats, even after a long time living in China, are still unable to draw a line between China in the political sense and the cultural/historical China.

    Usually, face-to-face interactions with the local people bring the two sides closer. That’s not the case with a lot of expats.


  32. @keisaat, absolutely correct. Just look at [Cao Ni] Horse Mechanic’s sarcastic, deeply personal reaction to my critique of the article.

    The fear and loathing is so blatant, I’m American and I’m offended.


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s